Category Archives: News

Collins Peapod Readers: Engaging young learners in online learning using readers

Recently, I‘ve been looking at ways to support young learner engagement through the use of readers online. Readers can help you to reach out, motivate, connect with and stimulate your young learners and help them continue on their English language learning journeys. They can provide a fun, energetic and multi-skilled learning environment. And there are many free software tools out there that can help.

Why not set up a reading challenge? Make it challenging but achievable in terms of how many books you expect a particular group of learners to read and within what time frame. Create a colourful and engaging reading challenge map: this could be a path, a tree or a maze, for example. Choose, or invite learners to choose, age and level-appropriate readers to fill their challenge map with and make sure every learner has access to a copy.

Then establish a book-club feel to the challenge. Use software such as Zoom, Skype or Microsoft Teams to either set up a virtual live classroom, or to record yourself reading each book aloud. See an example of me reading Collins Peapod Readers on Zoom/Loom. Seeing your face and hearing your voice will immediately give young learners the comforting feeling of being back in the classroom with you, so take time to introduce and discuss the book as you would usually. Even if children can’t or won’t respond to you via chat or voice, ask them all the questions you would usually ask, pause for thinking time, and then answer those questions yourself.

Use the fact that you aren’t altogether in one space to spark learners’ interest. Have learners guess where you will be reading in today’s video. Will you be reading in your garden? In your kitchen? On your sofa? Engage with them by asking questions about the cover, the title, etc, initiating ideas of what might happen in the book. Explore the opening spread with the group. Then challenge learners to read and listen to the book independently, or to watch your recorded reading, then have them join you in an after-reading debrief.

Use free software such as Kahoot! to make a mini quiz that will test both understanding of key words and reading comprehension in a fun and engaging way. lf you have all your learners online at the same time, they can play against each other, if not, they can play in their own time at their own pace. This can help learners to reconnect with their peers and to realise they are not alone.

Include an after reading journal for learners to complete after they finish each book. Here’s an example:

Date Book TitleParent signatureWhere I read this bookCommentFavourite word in this bookFavourite character in this storyFavourite new factTeacher comment

Learners could fill this in online on a Google doc, or use a Word doc which they then send to you by email, or print out, fill in, take a photo and send to you. Keep communication channels open by responding to whatever they write and in whatever format they choose.

Use the themes in each book to extend the learning with follow-on activities that learners can do independently at home. Make an example of each activity – a short video of you doing a mini-science experiment, a photo of a drawing you’ve done, or an audio recording of a poem you’ve written, share with the learners and challenge them to produce their own versions. Validate the effort and enthusiasm by uploading and sharing all responses in a gallery format with the learners, their parents/carers and the wider school community via a class webpage, Instagram, Facebook page, etc.

And at the end of their reading challenge – reward! Download a free reading certificate in English from one of the YL education websites, or custom-make your own for parents and carers to print out at home.

Written by Series Editor Rebecca Adlard, an experienced ELT professional who has a love of stories, plays and playing, and continually looks for ways to include these in language learning.

This is the second of a series of blog articles on how to get young learners immersed into reading in English. Follow us at CollinsELT on Facebook and Twitter to keep up to date or sign up to our ELT enewsletter.

Collins Peapod Readers is our new graded readers series for young learners starting their journey into learning English.

Find out more about the readers here.

Collins Peapod Readers: Off to a budding start with Cambridge English Qualifications

It seems to me that we often fall into the trap of viewing readers as an added extra in English language teaching, when in fact readers can offer so much more and be an integral part of a young learner’s English learning journey. Readers make learning English a positive and fun experience. Readers anchor vocabulary and language in varied and meaningful contexts. They support all of the classroom and coursework learning, and extend that learning by presenting the vocabulary and language in multiple scenarios.

Readers can also provide essential practice and preparation for the Cambridge Young Learner (CYL) Starters and Movers qualifications. Success in these exams means understanding and being able to use an extensive number of vocabulary items and language structures in context, and to recognise and be able to talk about a number of different topics. Readers, such as the new Collins ELT primary Peapod series, offer a constant and consistent exposure to these which is crucial in order to produce confident candidates.

The word lists for each level are based on the CYL lists. Levels 1-3 align with the Starters word list, structures and topics. Level 4, includes some Movers vocabulary and introduces some of the simpler Movers structures. Level 5 fully aligns with Movers. Key topic words are presented on each before reading spread. Key lexical sets are then reinforced in the picture dictionary, or mini-dictionary in level 5, at the end of the book. Both pages have a pre-recorded downloadable audio so learners can recognise and repeat these words with confidence. Therefore, you can be confident that when a learner picks up a Peapod book they are reviewing and reinforcing the CYL syllabus.

In addition, the Peapod readers have a unique after reading activity specifically designed to train learners for the CYL speaking exams (Starters parts 1, 3 and 5; Movers part 5). Using an image from the book they have just read as a visual prompt, learners listen to a pre-recorded set of exam-style questions read by a native English speaker in the style of a CYL examiner.  Questions are scaffolded so that in the lower levels learners are exposed to simpler closed questions, with more complex, open questions that require opinions or more personal responses being gradually included in the higher levels. Learners look at the picture, listen to the questions, and attempt to respond as they would in the Speaking exam. If you or one of your learners’ parents would prefer to read the questions aloud then you will find the script, along with suggested or required responses, in the accompanying downloadable PDF guide. In this way, parents can be encouraged to engage and support their child’s English language journey, too.

Learners are not expected to be able to respond to every question, especially at their first try, and in situations where they are working remotely or autonomously. But through practice and more practice,they will begin to develop their ear for hearing and understanding the different questions, and their confidence in responding in English will grow. Over time a physical response, such as a shake of the head or a show of fingers, or single-word answer, such as ‘yes’ or ‘no’, will develop into a more extended and coherent verbal answer setting each learner up for exam success.

A relaxed and well-prepared candidate will do better in the exam – familiarity breeds not contempt, but exam ease and confidence.

Written by Series Editor Rebecca Adlard, an experienced ELT professional who has a love of stories, plays and playing, and continually looks for ways to include these in language learning.

This is the first of a series of blog articles on how to get young learners immersed into reading in English. Follow us at CollinsELT on Facebook and Twitter to keep up to date.

Collins Peapod Readers is our new graded readers series for young learners starting their journey into learning English.

Find out more about the readers here.

A New Turn of Phrase

Speech bubble showing the words from the blog
Blog speech bubble

When we think of language change, it tends to be new coinages that spring to mind (rewilding, deepfake, zoombombing), but in fact, a lot of new language is created by putting existing words together in new combinations, that’s especially true of phrasal verbs and idioms.

For the latest editions of two new Collins COBUILD dictionaries of Phrasal Verbs and Idioms, we used the Collins New Monitor corpus to seek out combinations that have appeared or increased in frequency since the previous editions in 2012. Several areas cropped up as particular sources of innovation.

Digital technology

As digital technology continues to evolve and develop, it’s perhaps unsurprising that we create new terms to describe how we interact in online and digital spaces. With a lot of teaching and learning moving online, language learners are increasingly likely to find themselves wanting to refer to messages that pop up on screen, to ask why a section of text is greyed out so they can’t click on it or to describe how they’ve been searching up some information online.


If you’re in the world of commerce though, a pop-up might instead be a business, such as a restaurant or shop, that appears in a location just for a short time. Business innovations are constantly throwing up new terms to describe changing practices and processes. You might hear about information in an organisation cascading down from management to staff. As an employee you might manage up; carefully developing relationships with those above you. Or you might find yourself in a meeting to talk about scoping out new possibilities, deciding whether to take them forward or reaching out to new customers.

The media

Illustrations of things to do in lockdown at home: 
Grow Home Garden
Try New Recipes
Read New Books
Clean your Home
Home Office
Online education
Home Workout
Things to do in lockdown

Journalists are always on the lookout for new ways of describing the world to make events sound more dramatic and attract readers’ attention. In the world of politics, things are frequently described as being ramped up or dialled down. People with strong beliefs speak truth to power and call out what they see as inappropriate behaviour.

As we were researching at the end of 2019, we saw a lot of use of the phrasal verb lock down (and its noun form, lockdown) mostly in the context where people are told not to leave a building for their own safety during a serious incident. Little did we know how on point lockdown would become in 2020 as we all suddenly found ourselves being urged to stay at home to protect ourselves and others.

Social media

Image of a teacup with the writing 'let's spill the tea' in black and white
Spill The Tea

The global nature of social media means that previously niche slang terms spread quickly. On trend expressions such as spill the tea, meaning to share the latest gossip, or throw shade, to publicly show disrespect for someone, both originate in specific speech communities but have moved into the mainstream largely thanks to social media.

In digital online spaces, the boundaries between spoken and written language also get blurred. Having access to social media data has provided more evidence for expressions used mainly in conversation that may not have been captured so well in previous corpus data. We saw how people preface opinions with expressions like for what it’s worth (sometimes abbreviated to FWIW). When giving advice they ask you to take it from me to hint at their experience of something similar. They emphasize agreement with phrases like you and me both or isn’t it just?

So, if you want to zhuzh up your vocab, check out the new editions of Collins COBUILD Phrasal Verbs and Idioms Dictionaries. Be careful not to stuff it up though. Make sure you check exactly when and where it’s appropriate to use your newly-learnt expressions, you don’t want to sound like you’re trying too hard to get down with the kids 😉

This blog was written by Julie Moore, a freelance writer, lexicographer and corpus researcher who worked on the latest editions of the Collins COBUILD Idioms and Phrasal Verbs Dictionaries.

COBUILD English Usage 4th Edition: Mental Health and Disability

In our fourth blog post about the new edition of COBUILD English Usage, Julie Moore looks at some more of the changes in language usage that emerged from research for the new edition. In this post, she explores how language shifts reflect changing ideas about mental health and disability.

As I identified in my last post, our survey of current usage for the new edition of COBUILD English Usage uncovered evidence that new words, new combinations of words and new uses have developed in recent years to better describe the diversity that exists in contemporary society. In this post, I explore this idea of diversity and inclusion further, looking at the areas of mental health and disability.

When researching the topic of language and mental health, the most striking change is the frequency with which it’s now talked about. Having been a relatively taboo topic just a few years ago, the phrase mental health has more than doubled in frequency when you compare the older Bank of English section of the Collins Corpus with the ‘New Monitor’ corpus (which contains recent material from news and social media websites). There’s also evidence of a slight increase in the use of the phrase mental ill health reflecting a recognition that all of us have varying degrees of mental health in the same way that we have different degrees of physical health. This can be seen as part of normalizing the topic of mental health and removing the previous stigma.

One in five Australians experience mental ill health in any year.

In general, women are more likely than men to seek professional help for mental ill health.

When talking about anyone with a health condition, be that mental or physical, most groups of people and the charities which represent them advocate referring to the person first and then the condition or disability. For example, they advocate referring to a person experiencing mental health issues or a person with a disability rather than a mental patient or a disabled person.

Completely new words have sprung up too around the idea of normalizing people who were previously ‘othered’ or seen as in some way ‘abnormal’. Among the autistic community, for example, people who are not autistic – and would previously have been labelled ‘normal’ – are now referred to as neurotypical. And people with autism are informally referred to as being on the spectrum (short for ‘the autistic spectrum’), a conversational expression that indicates more ease around talking about autism.

Too many studies concerning autism and empathy are designed by neurotypical researchers.

Most people on the spectrum have incredible focus and imagination.

The world of sport has also provided a flurry of new terms using the prefix para– to refer to sports people with disabilities.  Although the Paralympics – a parallel event to the Olympics for athletes with disabilities – has been around for many years, in recent years, para-sport has developed a higher profile and with greater coverage has come more widespread use of terms like para-athlete, para-cycling, para-swimming, etc.

It seems to have become increasingly socially unacceptable to label anyone who doesn’t conform – because of their gender identity, sexuality, mental or physical health – as ‘other’ or ‘abnormal’.  This has led to a need for more diverse, less loaded language to refer both to varied types of individuals and groups (gender-fluid, on the spectrum, para-athlete) and new terms to better talk about those who were previously described by default using language that benchmarked them as ‘normal’ (cisgender, neurotypical).

COBUILD English Usage 4th Edition: Gender and Identity

In the next two blog posts about the new edition of COBUILD English Usage, Julie Moore looks at some of the changes in language usage that emerged from research for the new edition. In this post, she explores how language shifts reflect changing ideas about gender and identity.

Traditionally, identify has been used predominantly as a transitive verb; you identify someone or something:

Police identified the man from CCTV images.

We correctly identified several of the plants.

Our survey of current usage for the new edition of COBUILD English Usage has shown that a new use has become widespread within the past 10 years; identify as something meaning to view yourself as a member of a particular group. The ‘something’ can describe an ethnic, cultural, religious or political group: identify as a feminist / liberal / Arab / Christian / atheist

Most markedly though, people identify as something in terms of their gender or sexuality, reflecting that this categorization is no longer seen by many as fixed or given, but a personal choice.

Teenagers who do not identify as male or female will be able to opt out.

Sam began identifying as a woman four years ago.

This and similar developments reflect the wider concerns of a society as it progresses and adapts to the modern social climate.

Gender, in particular, has seen a proliferation of new terms to describe a range, or spectrum, of possible gender identities including gender-neutral, gender-fluid and non-binary gender. New words have also emerged to distinguish these new identities from traditional concepts of binary gender or cisgender.

When it comes to sexuality, many people will be familiar with the LGBT acronym which has been used for many years to refer to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities. This has been extended over recent years to encompass and recognize more groups; LGBT + Q (queer) + I (intersex) + A (asexual). There is sometimes also a + sign added at the end to recognize other possible groups.

In a more gender-fluid society though, the question of gendered pronouns still seems to remain unsettled. While there have been attempts to introduce new gender-neutral pronouns (such as ze or xe), our survey suggests that these remain somewhat limited in use, appearing mostly in discussions specifically about gender-neutral pronouns or within relatively small communities. More widespread  is the use of they/them. They has long been used as a gender-neutral pronoun to refer to any person:

If anyone has any questions, they can ask me later.

It is now, however, becoming more commonly used to refer to a specific individual who identifies as gender-neutral:

Jo lives in London. They work in marketing.

All these possible new labels and uses can seem like something of a minefield for anyone who is unsure about the best way to address or refer to different groups of people. To get around this issue, another new trend has emerged for individuals to signal how they prefer to be addressed. An increasing number of people are showing their preferred pronouns as part of their social media profile (e.g. Jo Bloggs (she/her) @jobloggs) or face to face via preferred pronoun badges (or ‘pins’).

COBUILD English Usage 4th Edition: Changes in vocabulary and grammar

In the second of our blog posts about the new edition of COBUILD English Usage, Penny Hands details some of the findings that came out of the team’s research into the ways in which new words and uses are created.

The second stage of the COBUILD English Usage update involved a survey of the current state of various aspects of the English language. It was carried out specially for this edition using the constantly updated Collins Corpus, as well as social media research and crowdsourcing.

It’s all very well having billions of words of corpus, but how do you find new words in it? It’s for this reason that a linguist’s job is a 24-hour one, constantly on the lookout for new words and uses. Corpora allow us to track these changes and to look for different ways that they are used, and to establish who uses them and in what context.

One really useful source of data is the Language Observatory Group (LOG) facebook page, set up by Mike McCarthy, where members add their observations about changes in the language.

The aim is not to gripe about ‘annoying’ things we hear people say, but some members care about that happening more than others. Mike has a certain refreshing tolerance for people expressing their preference for, or dislike of, certain neologisms, taking the view that a lot of fashions in clothes, music, etc, seemed odd or silly when they came out (and then do again when we look back on them).

New words are created all the time, often coming into the language via younger people. Occasionally we see a completely new word appear apparently from nowhere; more often, though, new words come about by people recycling existing ones so that they are used in a slightly different way.

The resulting findings hopefully provide a handy reference guide to new words and uses, but they also represent a fascinating snapshot of today’s society with all its attitudes and preoccupations.

Comparing the Bank of English section of the Collins Corpus with the ‘New Monitor’ corpus (which contains recent material from news and social media websites), we explored the ways in which language has evolved, looking at content from social media sites and news articles produced over the last 10 years.

Firstly, based on data from Collins’ new words database, we looked at some of the most popular ways of creating new language.

Common ways of doing this include adding a prefix or a suffix to an existing word, combining words, or using words in new ways, perhaps by giving them a new function or part of speech.

So the first thing we did was to follow up some hunches we had about new-word creation. As predicted, a lot of the new words we were seeing coming through in our dictionary department were ones created from existing words, combined with prefixes and suffixes.

Here are some of the most prominent innovations that came up in our survey of the current state of the language.


Common examples were:








upand down

upthread, upvote, uptick

downthread, downvote


Common examples were:

-less cashless, contactless, driverless, paperless

free traffic-free, GMO-free, carbon-free, meat-free, lactose-free


This one was flagged up among others on the LOG facebook page by Gavin Dudeney, who spotted the use of ‘sciencing’ on Radio 4.

The new probe is due to touch down on Mars soon and will be ‘sciencing’ as soon as it does.

This observation led us to investigate the current craze for verbing.

What we found, on investigating the social media sections of the Collins corpus, was a multitude of verbs based on brands.

Brand names have always been a rich source of verbing – hoovering, xeroxing, googling – but they seem to be proliferating in our current climate. I wonder if that’s because of the way that we all feel part of the action – we have agency over what gets bought and sold on these sites.

Why are you asking this here when you can just google the answer?

Jen snapchatted the whole thing.

Now we usually netflix it or chill at home with some good food.

We also found plentiful examples of airbnbing, eBaying, Instagramming and Ubering.

Adjectives as nouns

The next tendency we investigated was the sudden increase we had noticed in the use of adjectives as nouns.

Spread the happy. (Nutella®)

Committed to great since ’78. (Ben & Jerry’s®)

Find your fabulous.

And, by extension, a HarperCollins book …

‘Because’ as a preposition

Finally, we observed the repurposing of because as a preposition:

Why bother discussing this? Because language.

Not bothering with this. Because lazy.

Not going out tonight. Because working.

Here’s a snapshot of the concordance for ‘Because language’:

Note the line from the 2018 social media corpus containing the acronym ‘nsfw’, which stands for ‘not safe for work’, often used as a warning for an email subject line or social media post when sharing a link to potentially inappropriate content:

‘… hilarious nsfw because language.’

See also below a Twitter user’s use of ‘Because’ + adjective:

Note the use of a full stop to create a pause for emphasis.

Finally, if you’re interested in looking into this type of research further, take a look at Jack Grieve’s inaugural lecture, ‘The Future of Language Change’ at the University of Birmingham in December, 2018.

Professor Grieve shows how the study of language change is fast becoming a data science, and demonstrates what can be done with social media and high-level analysis tools.

He shows a series of graphs to demonstrate how we can now track usage from its initial use on social media and its exact location. We can see on what days certain words are typically used, where a brand-new coinage starts, and its pattern of diffusion over time. We can even home in on a particular city or neighbourhood, and see in which district a word emerges.

In the past, linguists used to say that you can never know where a word started because you’re not there to notice them. But now that isn’t true, at least for language used on social media. Language change research is making huge strides – and we’re the lucky ones who are here to see it.

COBUILD English Usage 4th Edition: updating the examples

In the first of our blog posts about the new edition of COBUILD English Usage, Penny Hands details some of the changes she made to the examples to ensure they reflect changes in society, and ponders on how future-proof these changes are likely to be.

One of our aims for this edition was to have a really close look at the example sentences, as our hunch was that society has changed so dramatically since the last overhaul that there would be work to do bringing things up to date.

Looking back at the brief for the last edition in 2011, I see that we were worried about authentic examples being too complex – a common criticism levelled at the COBUILD range in its earlier years, and which we were still ironing out.

As I was going through the examples, I took notes and categorised the outdated material. This would help us, I hoped, identify areas to focus on when we formulated new topic pages. These would be added to the resource to guide students and teachers in various aspects of language use that might have changed in the last ten years.

Here are the categories into which the outdated examples I identified sorted themselves:

  • technology
  • women
  • old-fashioned language
  • toilets
  • American English/British English


Unsurprisingly, in the area of technology, we found a large number of examples that needed to be changed. For example:

Some tech items, such as tape recorder and portable computer were obviously outdated, but others seemed to be just starting to look anachronistic because they related to things we do less and less often.

Since one of the aims of the update was to future-proof the book to an extent, I used my gut feeling to make interventions where they might not seem to be altogether essential at the moment. Examples of such amendments were as follows (underlining shows which word was being illustrated by the example sentence):

  • Is there a phone anywhere? I changed this to: Is there a place to eat anywhere round here? as asking casually for a phone didn’t seem to be something we would need to do very much these days.
  • You can take money out at any branch of your own bank. I changed this to: You can take money out at any cash machine.*
  • I’ll take my phone with me. I changed this to: I’ll keep my phone switched on because most people always take their phone with them; sometimes, though, we do turn our phones off, for example, if we’re in the cinema.
  • clock/radio à singer/songwriter (to illustrate the of use of the forward slash)
  • When you get your daily paper, which page do you read first? I changed this to: When you start up your computer, which application do you go to first?

* By the next edition, money in the form of notes – and as a result, cash machines – may well be on their way out, but I did feel that cash machines are still common enough to warrant a mention.


I found numerous references to women that, while not necessarily offensive, were just starting to make me flinch a bit. In the following examples, the replacement material is shown after the arrow.

  • … three beautiful young girls à … three adventurous young girls
  • I think a woman has as much right to work as a man. à I think a child has as much right to respect as an adult.
  • He arrived accompanied by his wife. à Children under 14 must be accompanied by an adult.
  • These days more women become managers. à These days friends tend to send messages rather than call each other.
  • She’s over 40 but she still dresses like a teenager. à The organisers advised people to dress appropriately.
  • Every businesswoman would have a secretary if she could. à Every pregnant woman wants the best care she can get.
  • Women must have equal status. à All citizens must have equal status.

Looking at the way I updated the examples referring to women gave me pause: I had frequently replaced woman/women with child/children. This prompted me to consider how things are changing from a hierarchical point of view. When we come to our next round of updates, will the examples with child no longer be acceptable? What will I need to replace them with next?

Old-fashioned language

The next category that came out of the analysis was that of ‘old-fashioned language’. Here are some of the words and phrases that jumped out.

American English/British English

Then there were the inevitable items that were labelled as Americanisms, which can hardly be referred to as such any more.

References to lavatories, ladies’ and gents’, air travel being ‘easy these days’, newsagents, letters, and an ‘Indian gentleman’ also all got reworded or expunged from the text.

So, what will future updates bring?

Much as I’ve tried to future-proof the examples, I’m going to make a perhaps rather rash prediction that all my new examples with children will have to be thrown out in ten years’ time, with dogs taking their place. But even then, anyone who has watched the TV programme ‘Supervet’, or the equivalent in their own country, and observed the status of the pet in many families, will have doubts about even that. Robot-servants, maybe?

New editions of Collins COBUILD Dictionaries – Out now!

In celebration of COBUILD’s 30th anniversary, Collins is proud to launch new editions of its three most popular Collins COBUILD dictionaries, out today:

  • Primary Learner’s Dictionary
  • Intermediate Learner’s Dictionary
  • Advanced Learner’s Dictionary

To find out more about these dictionaries, take a look at our new COBUILD Dictionaries leaflet.

So what’s new?

  • Up-to-date coverage of today’s English – based on the constantly updated 4.5-billion-word database of today’s English language, the Collins Corpus
  • Authentic examples – real-life examples of English from the Collins Corpus show how words are used in everyday language
  • Vocabulary-building features – brand-new features on collocation, word history, usage and synonyms to help learners use English with accuracy and confidence
  • New supplements – offer guidance on effective communication in English
  • Full sentence definitions – all words and phrases are covered in depth and explained in full sentences to show words in context
  • Frequency – the most important words are clearly highlighted to indicate which to learn first.

Authentic English at your fingertips 

A coaching approach to the IELTS writing tasks

Marking writing tasks is one of the most time consuming parts and often teacher centred parts of exam preparation courses. Like me, I’m sure many teachers have spent hours pouring over a student’s work, only to feel that the 100’s of red scribbles on the page had little impact on learning.

A different approach to exam preparation is to change your hat from ‘English Teacher’ to ‘English Coach’. Adopting a coaching perspective encourages students to navigate their own study path, taking control of their own learning and becoming more autonomous.

Familiarizing yourself, and coaching your students to use the official IELTS band score descriptors will equip them with the skills and knowledge to progress their own learning. Let’s look at an example of how to adopt this in your classroom.

For Academic Writing Task 1, the official IELTS website publicly lists the following four marking criteria that students will be marked on.

  • Task achievement
  • Coherence and cohesion
  • Lexical resource
  • Grammatical range and accuracy

When faced alone with this dense document, students (and teachers alike!) will feel overwhelmed and unsure of the interpretation. Here is a 5-step approach to using the descriptors in your class.

  1. Take the band score descriptors to class for discussion

 Before class, print and prepare a set of a set of the band score descriptors, to be used as realia.

Highlight these phrases to use in a class discussion and ask your students for their interpretation of the following examples taken from the ‘Task Achievement’ and ‘Coherence and Cohesion’ sections of the descriptors.

Depending on the class level, and hopefully aligning with the teachings from your IELTS course book, you should be able to elicit from the students that to achieve a band 7 for Task Achievement and Coherence and Cohesion they must:

  1. Design a band score checklist

Once students have seen this breakdown of the band score descriptors, it is time to make them relevant to their writing. Turn the class translation of each phrase into a question for students to evaluate themselves on.

  1. Give students a practice task

Now it’s time to put their newfound understanding to use! Previously, I’ve used the following writing task from Collins Writing for IELTS. Each unit in this title is broken down into commonly recurring IELTS topics, with different language focuses. Unit two is Diet & Nutrition, with an academic task 1 lexical focus on verbs to describe trends over time.

  1. Evaluate a model answer with your checklist

Before students receive their own work to evaluate, it’s important to arrive at a class consensus on the essential information and language needed for the task. Involve the class in a discussion on the important features and data of the graph and what they should have selected for their overview.

Now is a good time to make use of the model answer provided in the back of the course book. Use the class consensus and the checklist to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the model answer (or better yet, a strong model from the class). Go through the checklist, highlighting good (and bad!) examples of language.

  1. Evaluate own task

Once the class has discussed the model answer, return their tasks to them and ask them to evaluate their own (or each others) writing using the checklist. Students might like to rewrite their tasks with the feedback in mind.

Using a coaching approach towards evaluating writing tasks, is not only more student centered but also eases the pressure off the teacher. By building students’ awareness of the descriptors and what they are being marked against challenges students to be more independent in their learning and hopefully more motivated!


Katy has worked in ELT in Asia, South America, NZ and the UK. She is currently based in London working as an ELT Editor and Materials Writer. 

Encouraging IELTS students to read beyond the course book

It comes as no surprise that reading widely is proven to increase reading fluency. However, many students are still in need of a little encouragement and guidance to build the skills required to read confidently outside of the course book. Here are a few ways you can incorporate authentic readings into your IELTS preparation course to engage students and help them better prepare.

How do you choose authentic material?

Not all authentic material is made equal. While there is a plethora of potential readings just a mouse-click away, many students cite article selection as one of the main reasons why they didn’t read online regularly.

When selecting articles for your students, there are several things to consider:

  • Is the level appropriate?
    Be careful of discouraging students. Look for material that will challenge and motivate students at their level without being too advanced.
  • Is the material relevant?
    Select articles with topics that are likely to be covered in the IELTS exam. Also consider the structure and style of the articles. Does the material have a similar structure to potential IELTS readings? Are there good examples of language and topic sentences that students can model?
  • Will students enjoy reading this?
    The most important aspect. Students should be interested in and excited about learning a language. Try to find articles that will not only educate, but will impress your students and encourage them think and discuss. Ways to do this are catchy headlines, polarising topics or very current issues.

How do you make the most of the authentic material?

It’s unlikely that articles will come with a set of teacher’s notes and lead-in questions. But fear not: potential authentic reading tasks are endless! What’s more, you can do these activities together – or flip the classroom, doing any related speaking in class and prime/prep for the reading at home!

  • Focus on comprehension and structure
  • Underline topic sentences.
  • Prediction tasks, guessing the structure and content of the article from the title, subtitle and pictures.
  • Cut the article up into paragraphs, and give students a time limit to order it.
  • Focus on vocabulary
  • Utilise the Academic Word List and academic word highlighter. Try: blanking out academic words, creating word games or matching synonyms.
  • Practice guessing unknown vocabulary from context. Focus on the word function, other forms of the word and the connotations.
  • Ask students to select 5-10 unknown words from the text and categorise this into academic vocabulary, technical vocabulary, or different parts of speech.
  • Focus on IELTS style tasks
  • Create a set of T/F/NG questions. Or better yet, ask students to write their own to gain better understanding into the formulation of these.
  • Ask students to give each paragraph a heading, pass those headings to the next group and ask them to match.
  • Focus on responding
    Articles should not only be used for reading. Studies show that oral discussion of texts has a positive effect on language learning. Here are some ways you can use the text as a springboard to responding.
  • Practise speaking for elongated periods of time – summarise the main points of the article, aiming to speak for two minutes.
  • If there are multiple viewpoints in the article, assign students different personas and have them practise giving their opinions as part of a group discussion.
  • Identifying the main arguments, and use these to write an essay discussing both views.

To sum up, although there are some challenges in using authentic material in the classroom, it is a useful tool for both the teacher and the student. Through classroom and classroom support, students will benefit in gaining global reading skills which will assist them in the IELTS exam, and beyond.

Katy has worked in ELT in Asia, South America, NZ and the UK. She is currently based in London working as an ELT Editor and Materials Writer.